Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can lead to a high fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhi). If a doctor catches it early, they can treat it with antibiotics. Otherwise, typhoid can be fatal. People infected with these bacteria can spread them to others. This typically happens when an infected person uses the bathroom and does not wash their hands. The bacteria can stay on their hands and contaminate everything that the person touches, including any food and drinks. No animals carry this disease, so transmission is always from human to human.

In countries with poor sanitation, the water used to rinse and prepare food and beverages can also be contaminated with these bacteria. Travelers who eat foods or drink beverages contaminated with these bacteria can then get sick. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are most common in parts of the world with poor sanitation. This includes parts of Asia (especially India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), Africa, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and the Middle East.


Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever cause similar symptoms. People with these diseases usually have a fever that can be as high as 103–104°F (39–40°C). They also may have weakness, stomach pain, headache, diarrhea or constipation, cough, and loss of appetite. Some people have a rash of flat, rose-colored spots.  Internal bleeding and death can occur but are rare.

Getting vaccinated, choosing food and drinks carefully, and washing your hands are the best ways to avoid getting typhoid. Before traveling to a high risk area, a person should receive a vaccine against typhoid fever.

Those who become chronically ill (about 3%-5% of those infected), can be treated with prolonged antibiotics. Often, removal of the gallbladder, the site of chronic infection, will provide a cure. For those traveling to high-risk areas, vaccines are now available. Ask for more information to member of our team on vaccination program.